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Study: Child abuse causes depression and substance abuse

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Children who suffer or witness physical abuse undergo changes to their brain structure that may predispose them to depression and substance abuse later in life, a study said Wednesday.

The finding holds promise for early detection and pre-emptive counselling already in adolescence — a crucial phase of physical and emotional development and brain maturation, say researchers in the United States.

Using a specialised MRI scanning technique, “we identified microstructural disruption at certain locations of the white matter tracts of adolescents who experienced maltreatment during childhood,” researcher Hao Huang told AFP.

White matter tracts or nerve fibres, comparable to computer network cables, connect the grey matter in the brain’s different processing regions — transmitting signals to ensure they “talk” with each other efficiently.

Nineteen adolescents who had suffered physical or sexual abuse before the age of 10 or witnessed domestic violence that lasted six months or longer, took part in the study, as well as a control group of 13 with no abuse history.

Those in the abused group were physically and mentally healthy at the time they were recruited at an average age of 16, and were not abusing alcohol or drugs at the time.

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All the teenagers were followed at six-month intervals for up to five years.

“We found that adolescents with maltreatment history who had disrupted white matter tracts during the initial recruitment were more likely to develop depressive and addictive disorders,” said Huang of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre’s Advanced Imaging Research Centre.

Five of the 19 abuse victims developed depression later, compared to one in the control group, while four became substance abusers compared to one control teenager.

Two from the maltreated group developed both conditions, said the study published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology.

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The adolescents exposed to childhood abuse as well as those who later developed depression had significantly lower FA values — a measure of white matter efficiency.

“We believe that… brain scans might be helpful in identifying youngsters who are at high risk for developing these disorders and target them for early preventive intervention,” said Huang.

Earlier studies had observed similar white matter changes in individuals with a history of abuse, but this was the first to find a link to later psychological problems.

Huang said the exact mechanism by which the white matter tracts were disrupted was not yet understood and required further investigation.

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2020 Election

Trump un-ironically worries a presidential candidate who refuses to concede and then shreds the constitution

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President Donald Trump officially kicked off his re-election campaign at a campaign rally in Orlando, Florida -- the 60th campaign rally of his presidency.

During the speech, Trump offered a good deal of projection as he made baseless accusations against Democrats -- on the same exact topics where he has been credibly accused.

"This election is a verdict on whether we want to live in a country where the people will lose an election, refused to concede to spend the next two years trying to shred our Constitution and rip your country apart," Trump argued.

Watch:

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An economic crash is looming, and it could determine the fate of Trump — and the country

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If he times it right, Donald Trump might set back the Democratic Party for a generation or more; if he misses, he’ll go down in history along with Herbert Hoover as the guy who brought the nation an economic disaster.

Back in 2007 and early 2008, many of us were convinced that an economic crash was coming, and that George W. Bush and his Treasury secretary, Henry Paulson, and Fed chairman, Alan Greenspan, knew it.

And we also thought that they were doing everything they could to hold it off so it would happen after the 2008 election, so if a Democrat was elected they could say the crash was because people were “worried about the incoming Democrats,” and if McCain won it would be his problem, not Bush’s.

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‘We have been under siege’: Trump falsely claims he has been ‘violently’ attacked by his critics

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President Donald Trump claimed to be the victim of "violence" during his official campaign kickoff in Orlando, Florida.

"Many times I said we would drain the swamp and that’s exactly what we are doing right now. We are draining the swamp," Trump claimed, despite having the most scandal-plagued administration in American history.

"And that is why the swamp is fighting back so viciously and violently," Trump argued.

"For the last two and a half years we have been under siege and with the Mueller report we want and now they want a do-over. They want a do-over," he repeated.

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