A study published in the July issue of Cognitive Science determined that children who are not exposed to religious stories are better able to tell that characters in "fantastical stories" are fictional -- whereas children raised in a religious environment even "approach unfamiliar, fantastical stories flexibly."
In "Judgments About Fact and Fiction by Children From Religious and Nonreligious Backgrounds," Kathleen Corriveau, Eva Chen, and Paul Harris demonstrate that children typically have a "sensitivity to the implausible or magical elements in a narrative," and can determine whether the characters in the narrative are real or fictional by references to fantastical elements within the narrative, such as "invisible sails" or "a sword that protects you from danger every time."
However, children raised in households in which religious narratives are frequently encountered do not treat those narratives with the same skepticism. The authors believed that these children would "think of them as akin to fairy tales," judging "the events described in them as implausible or magical and conclude that the protagonists in such narratives are only pretend."
And yet, "this prediction is likely to be wrong," because "with appropriate testimony from adults" in religious households, children "will conceive of the protagonist in such narratives as a real person -- even if the narrative includes impossible events."
The researchers took 66 children between the ages of five and six and asked them questions about stories -- some of which were drawn from fairy tales, others from the Old Testament -- in order to determine whether the children believed the characters in them were real or fictional.
"Children with exposure to religion -- via church attendance, parochial schooling, or both -- judged [characters in religious stories] to be real," the authors wrote. "By contrast, children with no such exposure judged them to be pretend," just as they had the characters in fairy tales. But children with exposure to religion judged many characters in fantastical, but not explicitly religious stories, to also be real -- the equivalent of being incapable of differentiating between Mark Twain's character Tom Sawyer and an account of George Washington's life.
This conclusion contradicts previous studies in which children were said to be "born believers," i.e. that they possessed "a natural credulity toward extraordinary beings with superhuman powers. Indeed, secular children responded to religious stories in much the same way as they responded to fantastical stories -- they judged the protagonist to be pretend."
The researchers also determined that "religious teaching, especially exposure to miracle stories, leads children to a more generic receptivity toward the impossible, that is, a more wide-ranging acceptance that the impossible can happen in defiance of ordinary causal relations."
["Child praying" on Shutterstock]