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Slavery’s legacy persists: White private school enrollment higher in counties where there were more slaves

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None of us alive today had any direct involvement in slavery in America, but we continue to be affected by its legacy and could even be perpetuating it in subtle, everyday ways. One of the ways the legacy of slavery manifests is through the school system.

My recent research with Robert L Reece suggests the school system has been deeply affected by our slavery history, most notably in ways that relate to present-day school segregation.

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Identifying the legacy of slavery

One of the many striking aspects of slavery was the forcible denial of education to slaves.

As we detail in our paper, there is historical evidence to suggest that the insistence that black Americans don’t need or shouldn’t have the same quality of education as whites persisted even after emancipation.

But how does this history get reflected in the contemporary school system? We find that one of its consequences is greater black–white school segregation.

Using contemporary and historical census data for all counties in the South, we find evidence that indicates a positive relationship between the concentration of slaves in 1860 and black–white disparities in public school enrollment during the 2006–2010 time period.

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Most importantly, our results suggest that white private school enrollment is greater in counties where slaves were more heavily concentrated in 1860, thereby leaving black students overrepresented in public schools.

We need to learn from history

It is perhaps no surprise that slavery is associated with inequality and disadvantage for the enslaved population. However, what is notable is that this connection persists more than 150 years after the abolition of slavery.

Despite rulings and legislation aimed directly at reducing school segregation in the time between slavery and today, it is far from being a distant issue. And it needs our attention.

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Segregation negatively impacts disadvantaged groups but has little effect on those who are already advantaged. As a result, school segregation helps perpetuate the cycle of disadvantages that black kids already face.

Sixty years after the historic Brown v Board of Education court case, new conversations are starting about how the dream of an inclusive society hasn’t been achieved.

So, what does our research add to these emerging conversations?

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First, as we approach this issue again, we need to keep its historical foundations in mind. The historical depth of segregation’s foundations should remind us that solutions will not be easy and they cannot be short-term. Sustained efforts over several generations may be necessary before real change will be seen.

Second, we need to remember the importance of teaching history. Recent changes in our approach to education in the United States have directed an increasing amount of the school day to math and reading while squeezing out other subjects, including history. If we are to understand what’s going on today, history needs to remain among our core school subjects.

Black–white segregation across schools has been a persistent issue in the United States, one with serious ramifications for subsequent inequality. Without addressing its historical foundations, we may never fully address the contemporary consequences of our history.

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We may not be at fault for our country’s history, but we are responsible for what we do with it.

The Conversation

Heather O’Connell is Postdoctoral fellow at Rice University.

This article was originally published on The Conversation.
Read the original article.

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EU ambassador Sondland described as ‘potential national security risk’ by ex-Trump official: report

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Gordon Sondland, the man whom President Donald Trump appointed to be ambassador to the European Union, was described this week as a "potential national security risk" by a former top White House adviser, according to the New York Times.

According to the Times, former National Security Counsel official Fiona Hill said that Sondland posed a risk to American security because he was shockingly unqualified for the job he was given.

"[Hill] described Mr. Sondland, a hotelier and Trump donor-turned-ambassador, as metaphorically driving in an unfamiliar place with no guardrails and no GPS," the Times reports.

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‘Not true’: Fox News calls out Trump for lying about keeping US soldiers out of harm’s way

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As the U.S. military grapples with the logistics of a quick withdrawal from the northern part of Syria, President Donald Trump drew criticism for abandoning the Kurds and endangering U.S. troops. There are also reports that the army's departure has resulted in members of ISIS escaping from prison.

On Wednesday, Trump defended his decision, insisting that U.S. soldiers were not in danger. "Our soldiers are not in harm's way," he said. “That has nothing to do with us,” he added, about the conflict between Turkey and the Kurds at the Turkish-Syrian border.

But top military officials told Fox News that this was not true. "Not true, according to top US military commanders who tell Fox this is a complicated, deliberate phased withdrawal with a lot of inherent risk," Jennifer Griffin, National Security correspondent for Fox News, wrote on Twitter. "Already US warplanes had to warn approaching foreign troops with a show of force."

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‘Worse than Obama’: Lindsey Graham has full-blown freak out over Trump’s latest Syria statements

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Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-SC) on Wednesday had a full-blown freak out after President Donald Trump publicly said that the Turkish slaughter of the Kurds in northern Syria was not America's problem.

Writing on Twitter, the senator had his harshest condemnation yet of the president's decision to abruptly pull American troops out of Syria while giving Turkey a green light to invade the area.

"I hope President Trump is right in his belief that Turkeys invasion of Syria is of no concern to us, abandoning the Kurds won’t come back to haunt us, ISIS won’t reemerge, and Iran will not fill the vacuum created by this decision," Graham wrote. "However, I firmly believe that if President Trump continues to make such statements this will be a disaster worse than President Obama’s decision to leave Iraq."

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