Some New Jersey healthcare providers are calling on volunteers to make masks for their workers in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic — despite federal guidelines saying homemade masks should be only used as a last resort because they may not be effective.Atlantic Health Systems of Morris Plains operates five medical centers in Central Jersey and made a plea on its website for help.“Calling all those who can sew. If you can sew, you can make a mask," a statement on its website said. "These masks will be used for those in healthcare spaces who are not directly at risk for coronavirus exposure ...
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After four years of digging for fossils in a churchyard in York, Pennsylvania, amateur paleontologist Chris Haefner made an intriguing find. “I knew it was worth keeping,” he said. He posted his discovery on Facebook.
I spotted his post, and realized it was a major discovery: I study fossil invertebrates at the Spanish Research Council. When I contacted Haefner, he agreed to donate the fossil to London’s Natural History Museum.
Working with colleagues in the U.S. and U.K., we determined that this was a 510 million-year-old relative of today’s starfish and sea urchins. It is highly unique, new to science, and has only a partial skeleton. We named it Yorkicystis haefneri, after its finder.
Yorkicystis has revealed new information about how early life was evolving on Earth at a time when most of today’s animal groups first appeared.
Sea urchins are among Yorkicystis‘ surviving relatives.
Samuel Zamora, CC BY-ND
The Cambrian explosion
Yorkicystis lived during the “Cambrian explosion,” 539 million to 485 million years ago. Before this time, bacteria and other simple microscopic organisms lived alongside Ediacaran fauna, mysterious, soft-bodied creatures that scientists know little about.
The Cambrian brought a huge proliferation of species that emerged from the seas. They included groups of organisms that would eventually dominate the planet and representatives of most of today’s animal groups.
Within a few million years, complex animals with skeletons and hard shells appeared. Why this happened remains unclear, but a major change in ocean chemistry, with a higher concentration of calcium carbonate, likely played a key role.
Echinoderms weren’t the first of these found in the geological record. Brachiopods – marine animals that lived protected within seashells – predated them. So did arthropods, a group that had well-formed calcite exoskeletons, including trilobites.
For context, dinosaurs appeared 294 million years after the dawn of the Cambrian.
The first echinoderms
Some of the first primitive echinoderms were quite different from their present-day relatives, which have five arms extending from the center of their bodies, a structure called “pentamerous symmetry.”
Cambrian echinoderms had a wide range of body structures. Eocrinoids had vase-shaped bodies protected by geometrically patterned plates and a number of armlike structures. Helicoplacoids, shaped like fat cigars, were plated in calcite armor with a “mouth” that spiraled around its body. Blastoid species took various shapes, often resembling exotic flowers.
The Edrioasteroidea looked similar to today’s sea star, and with five arms that radiated from its mouth, it is the organism that Yorkicystis haefneri most resembles. So we classified it within this group on the evolutionary tree.
Yorkicystis, the echinoderm without a skeleton
While many Cambrian organisms formed sophisticated skeletons and defense structures to protect them from predators, Yorkicystis did the opposite. It “demineralized” its skeleton. It was a partially soft animal, with no protection over much of its body.
To understand this organism’s anatomy, we partnered with a paleoillustrator to visualize this creature from the fossil evidence we had. Hugo Salais first modeled each part of the skeleton in 3D and then used that to create a reconstruction, a high-resolution replica.
From this replica, we observed that only its arms, or ambulacra, were calcified, protecting its “food grooves” — its feeding parts, which are yellow in the fossil. A series of plates covered its tentacles and opened and closed during feeding. The rest of its body was soft, represented in the fossil by a dark, carbon-enriched film.
Most present-day echinoderms, which are found from the world’s coastlines to the ocean’s dark abyssal depths, have an internal skeleton. The exceptions are sea cucumbers and some species that live buried beneath the seabed. Their skeletons, like Yorkicystis, are formed by porous calcite plates.
Representatives of Cambrian echinoderms with a mineralized calcite skeleton. A. Ctenocystoid. B. Cincta. C. Helicoplacoid. D. Solute. E. Eocrinoid. F. Edrioasteroid.
Samuel Zamora, CC BY-ND
Bringing Yorkicystis to life
As paleontologists, we seek to understand extinct organisms. Yorkicystis presented a major challenge, since no similar animal is known, neither living nor extinct.
Very little is known about why and how some echinoderms lost parts of their skeleton. But advances in molecular biology have revealed that there is a specific set of genes responsible for the formation of a skeleton in echinoderms. All living echinoderms carry these genes; we assume that extinct groups did, too.
But in Yorkicystis, there is a marked difference between the calcification of its rays, or arms, and the lack of it on the rest of its body. It raises the hypothesis that the genes involved in skeleton formation may have acted independently in different parts of Yorkicystis‘ body. It’s a mystery that only molecular biologists will be able to unravel.
Our studies have allowed us to form some hypotheses about this animal, though many questions remain. We believe that without a skeleton in an important part of its body, Yorkicystis was able to conserve energy for other metabolic processes such as feeding or breathing. It also enhanced flexibility, allowing for more active respiration by means of pumping.
There’s another intriguing possibility: The lack of skeleton might be related to some kind of stinging protection system, like that used by present-day anemones that paralyze prey with stinging cells on the tentacles that surround their mouths. That question, though, and many others, can’t be answered with just a fossil.
But the amazing discovery of Yorkicystis has provided more insight into a period in divergent evolutionary history at the dawn of the Cambrian explosion, a time when some organisms adopted skeletons to avoid predators – and others adapted in very different ways.
Samuel Zamora, Científico Titular (Paleontólogo), Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (IGME - CSIC)
Maine MAGA candidate: Liberal teachers 'brainwashed' Texas shooter and forced him to go on murder spree
On Thursday, the Portland Press Herald reported that a Republican candidate for Maine House of Representatives is blaming the Uvalde, Texas school shooting on "liberal teachers" who "brainwashed" him.
Specifically, Heather Ann Sprague cited a debunked internet hoax that the shooter was a transgender girl, and that this somehow traumatized the shooter into committing the crimes.
"In an apparent reference to a rumor on social media that has been debunked, Sprague claimed there were pictures online of the shooter dressed in women’s clothing," reported Stephen Betts.
The report then quoted Sprague's full post.
"All I have to say is this is the result of what happens when kids are pushed past their limits," the candidate wrote. "Its (sic) obvious he was brainwashed in school by liberal teachers to think he shouldn’t be a male. If this crap doesn’t stop we will have more shootings because there are alot (sic) more confused, fed up and now mentally ill kids out there thanks to the #publicschoolsystem THIS is why I have been TRYING to get the truth out about what the schools are doing to our youth because it’s DANGEROUS."
According to NBC News' Ben Collins, the idea that the shooter was a transgender girl traces back to a hoax on the far-right message board 4chan, where an anonymous user posted Instagram images of a transgender girl named Sam who had been the target of prior harassment campaigns on the site, and claimed she was the shooter. Even many 4chan users themselves didn't believe the hoax, but it still spread to the point that lawmakers, including Rep. Paul Gosar (R-AZ), promoted it.
Maine Republican Party chief Jason Savage disavowed Sprague's tirade, saying, "we believe it is appropriate for everyone to have time to gather the real facts of this case before drawing any conclusions."
So far, reporting indicates that the actual shooter, Salvador Ramos, purchased the guns legally on his 18th birthday from a licensed dealer, displayed warning signs of disturbed obsessions prior to the incident, and shot his grandmother before going to the school.
A group of artists shook the world in the 1860s by painting what they saw, thought and felt. They became known as the impressionists and they weren’t interested in recreating perfect visual appearances like hundreds of artists before them.
Instead, painters like Claude Monet strove for a new way of representing the world in order to keep it alive and real. They did this by creating an “impression” of how a person, landscape or object appeared to them at a certain moment in time. In doing so, they captured all aspects of their changing societies and transformed the very nature of the way people think of and engage with art.
Our world today is shaped by similarly intangible things, such as data. Like the impressionists, scientists must visualise these things in a way that can help people see the world (and how it is changing) anew.
In 2020, the average person created at least 1.7 megabytes of data per second while traversing online banking systems, emails, medical records and social networks. To try and represent data, scientists typically use graphs or charts. With much of society now suffering from what has been described as data fatigue, traditional methods of depicting all the facts and figures swirling around are unlikely to cut it.
For example, the smart meters that were introduced to households in the UK were supposed to motivate people to save energy through a better understanding of where it was being wasted. But research suggests many people find the data visualisations confusing and difficult to relate to everyday household activities.
Just when people need to engage in the effort to avert the worst consequences of climate change, data fatigue is turning their attention elsewhere. Like the 19th-century impressionism movement did for art, 21st-century science needs a new way to depict data.
An impression of island life
Data impressionism is supposed to imbue data with a vividness that enhances understanding and possibly even influences the behaviour of those viewing it.
The idea is to make the data more perceptible and so, easier to interpret. A data impression should only depict accurate data, but unlike traditional charts and figures, it’s designed to make people reflect on how the information makes them feel.
One data impression my colleagues and I have developed echoes the work of impressionist painters who used shifting light and colour to depict an impression of a scene, like Claude Monet’s in his 1872 painting Impression, Sunrise.
Monet’s Impression, Sunrise evokes dawn without creating a photo-realistic depiction.
The island of Flat Holm is a nature reserve that sits a few miles off the coast of Cardiff, Wales in the Bristol Channel. Flat Holm contains rare plants, such as rock sea-lavender and wild leek, and a colony of lesser black-backed gulls. Its protection depends on it remaining a place of interest in the public consciousness. Lots of data has been collected on the biodiversity of Flat Holm over the years, and a local weather station keeps tabs on the sunshine, wind and rainfall.
A temporary exhibition running at the Techniquest science museum in Cardiff depicts some of these data streams using coloured LED lighting, moving parts and reflective surfaces. An online app was developed to support the exhibit and is now used by the island warden to count and report the number of seagulls, butterflies, shelducks and other species. An impression of this data is then revealed to the audience at the museum through an interactive map.
A touch of the seagull button on the display releases a pattern of colour and movement. If lots of seagulls have been counted on the island, the shifting coloured LED lights are vibrant and fast. If few seagulls were reported, the flickering LED lights are slow and calm.
The exhibit also captures a real-time impression of what the weather on the island is like. Data pulled from the weather station turns prism-shaped panels on a mechanical display to give an impression of how sunny, cloudy or rainy the weather is.
The exhibit allows visitors to immerse themselves in a visual display of life on the island. Like impressionist paintings before, it uses aesthetic elements and principles to make the data feel more real. If scientists are to successfully engage people with complex data, they need to generate experiences that allow them to connect and relate to it.
Fiona Carroll, Reader in Human Computer Interaction, Cardiff Metropolitan University; Aidan Taylor, Lecturer in Computer Embedded Design, Cardiff Metropolitan University, and Jon Pigott, Senior Lecturer in Art and Design, Cardiff Metropolitan University