Quantcast
Connect with us

U.S. hired Nazis to test LSD and CIA interrogation techniques, book says

Published

on

It’s long been known that Nazi scientists helped the U.S. in its quest to secure its military might and space program at the height of the Cold War. Wernher von Braun, for example, a Nazi rocket scientist, led a team that helped the U.S. develop the vehicle employed for the first nuclear missile test, and aided efforts to launch first Western satellite in 1958. Hundreds of Nazi scientists were given citizenship between 1945 and 1955. But what’s been unknown — until today — is the extent to which former Nazis were employed to test LSD and other interrogation techniques on captured Soviet spies.

According to a book released this week by journalist Annie Jacobsen, U.S. intelligence hired Third Reich scientists in capacities stranger and more nefarious than anything reported before.

“Under Operation Paperclip, which began in May of 1945, the scientists who helped the Third Reich wage war continued their weapons-related work for the U.S. government, developing rockets, chemical and biological weapons, aviation and space medicine (for enhancing military pilot and astronaut performance), and many other armaments at a feverish and paranoid pace that came to define the Cold War,”  Jacobsen writes. Her book is titled  Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program that Brought Nazi Scientists to America.

The book follows 21 former Nazis, eight of whom worked side by side with Hitler and his top lieutenants. According to Jacobsen, they joined the U.S. fight against the Soviets in the U.S. at the behest of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Her account reveals the bizarre, funhouse-like theater that pervaded the U.S. military and intelligence services at the time. It takes the reader a step farther than previous narratives, exploring the nexus of Nazis and Americans, who’d been at war just years before. In a memorable paragraph, she describes U.S.-Nazi collaboration over LSD.

ADVERTISEMENT

Quoting a memorandum on a program titled U.S. Artichoke, she writes, “Between 4 June 1952 and 18 June 1952, an IS&O [CIA Inspection and Security Office] team… applied Artichoke techniques to two operational cases in a safe house. In the first case, light dosages of drugs coupled with hypnosis were used to induce a complete hypnotic trance… This trance was held for approximately one hour and forty minutes of interrogation with a subsequent total amnesia produced.”

She also posits that the CIA teamed up with former Nazis to develop interrogation techniques.

“The CIA teamed up with Army, Air Force and Naval Intelligence to run one of the most nefarious, classified, enhanced interrogation programs of the Cold War,” Jacobsen writes. “The work took place inside a clandestine facility in the American zone of occupied Germany, called Camp King. The facility’s chief medical doctor was Operation Paperclip’s Dr. Walter Schreiber, the former Surgeon General of the Third Reich… The activities that went on at Camp King between 1946 and the late 1950s have never been fully accounted for by either the Department of Defense or the CIA.”

ADVERTISEMENT

Jacobsen, an L.A. Times reporter, is not without her detractors. In 2004, she reported that thirteen Middle Eastern men appeared to be making a dry run for a terrorist attack on a flight she took between Detroit and L.A. While noting that the men would have looked suspicious to a casual observer, the rumor-debunking website Snopes called the account false. All of the men were detained following the flight and then released. None were charged with a crime. They were, in fact, musicians traveling to perform.

Nearly a thousand Nazis scientists were given citizenship in the decade following the war. Many of them had been members of the Gestapo, and worked with concentration camp slave labor. CNN reporter Linda Hunt first revealed the broad scope of U.S.-Nazi collaboration in her 1991 book, Secret Agenda: The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945–1990, calling the program “the biggest, longest-running operation involving Nazis in [U.S.] history.”

Jacobsen reveals more in an excerpt of the book was published in the Daily Beast.

ADVERTISEMENT

It was 1946 and World War II had ended less than one year before… Since [the] war’s end, across the ruins of the Third Reich, U.S. military officers had been capturing and then hiring Hitler’s weapons makers, in a Top Secret program that would become known as Operation Paperclip. Soon, more than 1,600 of these men and their families would be living the American dream… From these Nazi scientists, U.S. military and intelligence organizations culled knowledge of Hitler’s most menacing weapons including sarin gas and weaponized bubonic plague.

As the Cold War progressed, the program expanded… In 1948, Operation Paperclip’s Brigadier General Charles E. Loucks, Chief of U.S. Chemical Warfare Plans in Europe, was working with Hitler’s former chemists when one of the scientists, Nobel Prize winner Richard Kuhn, shared with General Loucks information about a drug with military potential being developed by Swiss chemists. This drug, a hallucinogen, had astounding potential properties if successfully weaponized. In documents recently discovered at the U.S. Army Heritage Center in Pennsylvania, Loucks quickly became enamored with the idea that this drug could be used on the battlefield to “incapacitate not kill.” The drug was Lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD.

Other Nazis hired by the U.S. space program included:

ADVERTISEMENT

  • Major General Walter Dornberger, a close associate of von Braun’s

  • Werner Heisenberg, physicist and Nobel laureate who founded quantum mechanics

  • gaseous uranium centrifuge expert Dr. Paul Harteck

    ADVERTISEMENT

  • Nazi atomic bomb physicist and military project leader Kurt Diebner

  • uranium enrichment expert Erich Bagge

  • 1944 Nobel Prize winner Otto Hahn, called the “father of nuclear chemistry”

    ADVERTISEMENT

  • scientists Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, Karl Wirtz, and Horst Korsching

  • physicist Walter Gerlach

You can read a longer excerpt of the book here.

ADVERTISEMENT

[Photo credit: Shutterstock]


Report typos and corrections to [email protected].
READ COMMENTS - JOIN THE DISCUSSION
Continue Reading

Breaking Banner

Former Fox & Friends co-host Clayton Morris flees the US as he faces two dozen lawsuits

Published

on

Facing more than two-dozen lawsuits alleging he committed real estate fraud, former "Fox & Friends Weekend" co-host Clayton Morris has reportedly fled the United States, according to the Indianapolis Star.

Morris, who previously resided in a $1.4 million home in New Jersey, moved his family to a coastal resort town in Portugal, the newspaper reported, citing a Facebook post from his wife.

Morris's wife and business partner, former MSNBC anchor Natali Morris, told the IndyStar that she and her husband plan to continue fighting the lawsuits from abroad.

Continue Reading

Breaking Banner

Trump defenders argued his latest tweets weren’t really racist — but he just completely undercut their arguments

Published

on

Donald Trump in coal helmet thumbs up

If you try to defend President Donald Trump, you will always end up having the rug pulled out from underneath you. It's a law of nature.

And yet, so many of the president's allies have failed to learn this simple lesson. So when Trump launched a new attack at progressive Democratic lawmakers that was one of his most obviously racist smears, inevitably, some of his defenders tried to deny the obvious truth.

His screed attacked a group of women who have come to define the left wing of the Democratic caucus, which includes Reps. Ilhan Omar (MN), Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (NY), Rashida Talib (MI), and Ayanna Pressley (MA). Though only Omar is an immigrant (she was a refugee from Somalia as a child), Trump seemed to assume all four women of color weren't born in the United States, and most egregiously, he suggested they should "go back" to other countries:

Continue Reading
 

Breaking Banner

Trump is facing massive criticism for his attacks on young women of color in Congress

Published

on

US President Donald Trump came under fire from Democrats and even some members of his own Republican Party on Monday after launching an extraordinary xenophobic attack on four progressive Democratic congresswomen.

"All they do is complain," Trump told reporters at a White House event featuring products "Made in America."

"These are people that hate our country," he said of the four lawmakers. "If you're not happy here, you can leave."

Trump also accused the four first-term congresswomen -- who are of Hispanic, Arab, Somali and African American origin -- of having "love" for US "enemies like Al-Qaeda."

Continue Reading
 
 
 

Copyright © 2019 Raw Story Media, Inc. PO Box 21050, Washington, D.C. 20009 | Masthead | Privacy Policy | For corrections or concerns, please email [email protected]

close-image