Denmark's artistic and chain-smoking Queen Margrethe II has been hailed for unifying and modernizing the monarchy in her 50 years on the throne, a milestone to be celebrated in pomp and circumstance this weekend.
The 82-year-old Margrethe, with her trademark white-haired bun is the first woman to hold the position of reigning queen. And she has become the second longest-serving monarch in Danish history.
Having come to power amid waning support for the royals in 1972, she helped restore its standing in the decades that followed.
"She has managed to be a queen who has united the Danish nation in a time of large changes: globalization, the appearance of the multicultural state, economic crises in the 1970s, 1980s and again in 2008 to 2015, and the pandemic," historian Lars Hovebakke Sorensen told AFP.
"The basis of her popularity is that the queen is absolutely non-political," he said.
Margrethe marked the 50th anniversary of her accession in January with a scaled-down celebration due to Covid. The full festivities were postponed until this weekend.
On Saturday, she will greet well-wishers from a palace balcony before lunch at the City Hall and an evening gala performance in her honor at Copenhagen's royal theatre.
Sunday's events will include a thanksgiving service at Copenhagen Cathedral, lunch on the royal yacht and a special dinner at the Christianborg Palace.
Margrethe came to the throne at the age of 31 in January 1972 on the death of her father, Frederik IX.
At the time a mother of two young boys -- she now has eight grandchildren -- she 0was the first woman to become a reigning queen in one of Europe's oldest monarchies. The Danish royal line dates back to Gorm the Old in the 10th century.
Although she is the first reigning queen, she took her reign name Margrethe II, in recognition of Margrethe I, who ruled Denmark from 1375-1412 but never formally held the title.
When she became queen, only 45 percent of Danes were in favor of the monarchy, most believing it had no place in a modern democracy.
During her reign however, Margrethe managed to stay away from scandal and helped to modernize the institution -- allowing her two sons to marry commoners, for example.
Today, five decades later, the Danish monarchy is one of the most popular in the world, enjoying the support of more than three-quarters of Danes.
Margrethe was born in Copenhagen on April 16, 1940, just one week after Nazi Germany's invasion of Denmark.
She eventually became the eldest of three sisters, but when she was born Denmark's law of succession barred women from inheriting the throne.
The law was changed in 1953 following a referendum, under pressure from successive Danish governments mindful of a need to modernize society.
'Until I drop'
The queen, affectionately nicknamed Daisy by her family and subjects, has managed to keep the monarchy relevant without diminishing its status.
Widowed in 2018, she has repeatedly insisted that she will never step down from her duties.
"I will stay on the throne until I drop," she says.
Denmark has no tradition of abdication -- and given her robust health the question has never been raised seriously.
In May, she rode a roller-coaster at Copenhagen's famed Tivoli amusement park, her hat fastened securely on her head.
Her eldest son, 54-year-old Crown Prince Frederik, is due to succeed her when the time comes.
Queen of arts
With sparkling blue eyes and a broad smile, she is known for her relaxed and playful side, as well as for her involvement in Denmark's cultural scene.
A painter as well as a costume and set designer, she has worked with the Royal Danish Ballet and Royal Danish Theatre on numerous occasions.
She has studied at Cambridge and the Sorbonne, and is a fluent speaker of English, French, German and Swedish.
She has participated in elaborate translation projects, including the 1981 Danish version of Simone de Beauvoir's "All Men are Mortal" under a pseudonym in cooperation with her French-born husband, Prince Henrik.
But it is primarily her paintings and drawings that have caught the public's eye.
She has illustrated several books, including a Danish 2002 edition of J.R.R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings", and her paintings have been exhibited in museums and galleries in Denmark and abroad.
© 2022 AFP