SAN FRANCISCO – The ex-chief security officer of Uber Technologies Inc. has been convicted of covering up a 2016 data breach involving 57 million of the San Francisco-based ride-hailing company’s users, according to the U.S. Attorney’s Office. A jury on Wednesday found Joseph Sullivan guilty of obstruction of justice and misprision of felony, or having knowledge that a federal felony was committed and taking steps to conceal that crime, prosecutors said in a statement. He faces up to five years for the obstruction charge and up to three years for the misprision charge. According to the U.S. At...
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Where does that molten rock come from?
We asked Gabi Laske, a geophysicist at the University of California-San Diego who led one of the first projects to map the deep plumbing that feeds the Hawaiian Islands’ volcanoes, to explain.
Where is the magma surfacing at Mauna Loa coming from?
The magma that comes out of Mauna Loa comes from a series of magma chambers found between about 1 and 25 miles (2 and 40 km) below the surface. These magma chambers are only temporary storage places with magma and gases, and are not where the magma originally came from.
The origin is much deeper in Earth’s mantle, perhaps more than 620 miles (1,000 km) deep. Some scientists even postulate that the magma comes from a depth of 1,800 miles (2,900 km), where the mantle meets Earth’s core.
An illustration suggests what Hawaii’s mantle plume might look like.
Joel E Robinson/USGS
Earth’s crust is made up of tectonic plates that are slowly moving, at about the same speed as a fingernail grows. Volcanoes typically occur where these plates either move away from each other or where one pushes beneath another. But volcanoes can also be in the middle of plates, as Hawaii’s volcanoes are in the Pacific Plate.
The crust and mantle that comprise the Pacific Plate cracks at different places as it moves northwestward. Beneath Hawaii, magma can move upward through the cracks to feed different volcanoes on the surface. The same thing happens at Maui’s Haleakala, which last erupted about 250 years ago.
How does molten rock travel from deep in Earth’s mantle, and what exactly is a mantle plume?
Scientists hypothesize that the mantle is not made of uniform rock. Instead, differences in the type of mantle rock make it melt at different temperatures. Mantle rock is solid at some places, while it starts to melt at other places.
The partially molten rock becomes buoyant and ascends toward the surface. The ascending mantle rock is what makes a mantle plume. Because the overlying pressure lessens as the rock ascends, it melts more and more, and eventually collects in the magma chamber. If a large enough opening exists at the surface, and enough volcanic gases have collected in the magma chamber, the magma is forced to the surface in a volcanic eruption.
The origin of the magma may be more than 620 miles deep, and some scientists have suggested it could come from a depth of 1,800 miles, where the mantle meets Earth’s core.
Seismic imaging by research teams I’m involved with has shown that Hawaii’s mantle plume comes from deep inside the mantle.
But the plume is not a straight pipe as some concept figures suggest. Instead, it has twists and turns, originally coming from the southeast, but then turning toward the west of Hawaii as the plume reaches into the shallower mantle. Cracks in the Pacific Plate then channel the magma upward toward the magma chamber beneath the island of Hawaii.
Why does Hawaii typically see less dramatic eruptions than other locations?
Hawaii is in the middle of an oceanic plate. In fact, it is the most isolated volcanic hot spot on Earth, far away from any plate boundary.
Oceanic magma is very different from continental magma. It has a different chemical composition and flows much more easily. So, the magma is less prone to clog volcanic vents on its ascent, which would ultimately lead to more explosive volcanism.
Thermal imaging shows the Mauna Loa eruption, which began around 11:30 p.m. local time on Nov. 27, 2022. Temperatures are in Celsius. USGS.
How do scientists know what is happening under the surface?
Volcanic activity is monitored with many different instruments.
The perhaps simplest to understand is GPS. The way scientists use GPS is different from that of everyday life. It can detect minuscule movements of a few centimeters. On volcanoes, any upward movement on the surface detected by GPS indicates that something is pushing from underneath.
Even more sensitive are tiltmeters, which are in essence the same as bubble levels that people use to hang pictures on a wall. Any change in the tilt on a volcano slope indicates that the volcano is “breathing,” again because of magma moving below.
Mauna Loa has a history of eruptions. Here’s where the lava tends to go.
A very important tool is watching for seismic activity.
Volcanoes like Hawaii’s are monitored with a large network of seismographs. Any movement of magma below will cause tremors that are picked up by the seismometers. A few weeks before the eruption of Mauna Loa, scientists noticed that the tremors came from ever shallower depths, indicating that magma was rising and an eruption might be imminent. This allowed scientists to warn the public.
Other ways that volcanic activity is monitored includes chemical analysis of gases coming out through fumaroles – holes or cracks through which volcanic gases escape. If the composition changes or activity increases, that’s a pretty clear indication that the volcano is changing.
Republicans had expected a "red wave" in last month's election, but thanks to low-quality candidates endorsed by Donald Trump and chosen by GOP primary voters, they failed to win a Senate majority and eked out a narrow majority in the House.
"Kevin McCarthy thought they were going to get 60 votes," said MSNBC's Joe Scarborough. "Again, it's the antithesis of what I thought Republicans were about, which was winning. People would ask me my strategy, we're going to burn their campaign to the ground and salt the earth so nothing ever grows there again. What does that mean? We're going to beat them so bad their dog is embarrassed to walk down the street. We got to win."
Conway said GOP base had become so reactionary, thanks to a steady diet of conservative media, that their chosen candidates couldn't break through in general elections, and more moderate candidates were cast out in purity tests.
"They're hostage to a 20 percent, 30 percent, 40 percent of the party that is completely high on this toxic Fox News propaganda and with Trump still," Conway said. "That's the problem. You cannot piss these people off, you're going to get primaried and lose this election. That's why you see this lack of courage. You're a congressman in one of these districts -- you don't care, you want to win your race. You don't want to get primaried, and it doesn't matter what happens in the swing districts."
That dynamic would likely fuel a third Trump nomination for president in 2024, especially if the GOP field is crowded, and regardless of the criminal cases against him.
"The other thing is we have this former president who's going to run again -- who is running again, announced he's running again -- who's going to be indicted, at least once, probably two or three times, and he's going to get the nomination," Conway said. "Because the only way he can be beaten is one on one. All of these people, I mean, there was something about [Arkansas Gov.] Asa Hutchinon going to Iowa or somewhere in New Hampshire. If all of these people run, Trump's going to win with 30 percent or 40 percent."
Conway believes indictments are likely, and he's pretty sure that will help him secure the nomination.
"Those people are going to say, they're picking on him, and I'm going to vote for Donald Trump," he said.
Watch the video below or at this link.
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Former President Donald Trump this week recorded a video for a fundraiser on behalf of the people who are currently serving jail sentences for violently rioting on his behalf.
The Washington Post reports that Trump this week sent a recorded message to a fundraising event for the Patriot Freedom Project, which bills itself as "a non-profit organization providing legal, financial, mental-health, and spiritual support for individuals and their families — including young children — who are suffering at the hands of a weaponized justice system."
In the video, Trump pledged justice for those supporters who illegally broke into the United States Capitol building on January 6th, 2021 and sent lawmakers fleeing for their lives.
“People have been treated unconstitutionally, in my opinion, and very, very unfairly, and we’re going to get to the bottom of it,” the former president pledged. “It’s the weaponization of the Department of Justice, and we can’t let this happen in this country.”
Trump's message isn't the first time he's expressed support for the Capitol rioters, as earlier this year he vowed to give them full pardons and even formal apologies for the ways they've purportedly been mistreated.
Trump's expression of support for the rioters came in the same week that Oath Keepers founder Stewart Rhodes was found guilty of seditious conspiracy charges over his plot to use force to block the certification of President Joe Biden's 2020 election victory.